高尚谎言 : 尼采悲剧理论述评

Translated title of the contribution: Noble Lies – Nietzsche’s Theory of Tragedy

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

Abstract

弗里德里希·尼采是西方美学史上一位承前启后、继往开来的重要人物。他的理论贡献主要在于超越简单的模仿说和写实论,指出艺术作品的虚构性和实用性。其虚构性主要源于日神精神所表现出的梦幻特征,其实用性则源于人最根本的生存意志。也就是说,艺术除了帮助我们认知世界,还能够增强人的生存欲望,所以不应该被从理想国驱逐出去。与此同时,尼采还强调悲剧这一特殊艺术门类在人类文明发展史上的重要性。倘若我们过于依赖日神的麻醉剂,文学和艺术就会逐渐丧失其严肃性,成为专门取悦大众的流行作品。这时就需要直面人生的酒神来干预,增强我们对人间苦难的敏感度。与其前辈叔本华的意志论相比,尼采的日神与酒神之辩证统一学说更加积极,它不提倡放弃生活,而是鼓励个人在人类整体生活中寻求形而上的生存意义。令人遗憾的是,尼采对具体悲剧作品的解读常常失之偏颇,他关于古希腊悲剧死于欧里庇得斯手中的论断也因而令人质疑。尽管如此,尼采将悲剧艺术之消长与人类文明之变迁相连接的开创性努力功不可没,有助于我们克服长期统治着理论界的艺术本体论。

Friedrich Nietzsche is a very important figure in the history of Western aesthetics. His major contribution to the theory of art lies in his transcendence of the simplistic theory of imitation and realism, pointing out the fictional as well as pragmatic nature of art. The fictional aspect of art originates from illusion which is often associated with Apollo whereas the pragmatic aspect of art derives from humans’ fundamental will to live. This means that art can not only help us know the world better but also enhance our will to life, thus ensuring its legitimate place in Plato’s republic. At the same time, Nietzsche emphasizes the special importance of tragedy as unique genre of art in the development of human civilization. If we rely too much on the prophylactic function of Apollonian spirit, art will gradually lose its seriousness and turn into popular texts whose main objective is to entertain, hence a need for Dionysian spirit which can restore our natural sensitivity to suffering as the true essence of human existence. In comparison with his predecessor Arthur Schopenhauer’s philosophy of the will, Nietzsche’s theory of the unity of the Apollonian and the Dionysian is much more positive, encouraging individuals to seek her meaning of life in relation to the entirety of humankind at a metaphysical level. What weakens Nietzsche’s theory of art is his misreading of many tragic texts which in turn put into question his judgment that Greek tragedy died in the hands of Euripides. Nevertheless, Nietzsche’s pioneering effort in connecting the rise and fall of tragedy with specific developments in human history is very inspiring to our constant struggle to overcome the unhealthy dominance of the theory of autonomy of art.
Translated title of the contributionNoble Lies – Nietzsche’s Theory of Tragedy
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)225-234, 605-606
Number of pages12
Journal马克思主义美学研究
Volume23
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

ISBN: 9787208170070

Keywords

  • 尼采
  • 日神精神
  • 酒神精神
  • 悲剧死亡
  • 形而上的慰藉
  • Nietzsche
  • Schopenhauer
  • tragic theory
  • the Apollonian
  • the Dionysian
  • death of tragedy
  • metaphysical solace

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