Non-adherence to WHO’s recommended 8-contact model: geospatial analysis of the 2017 Maternal Health Survey

Kwamena Sekyi DICKSON, Ebenezer N. K. BOATENG*, Kenneth Setorwu ADDE, Edward Kwabena AMEYAW, Michelle L. MUNRO-KRAMER

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review


Evidence shows that most women in Ghana do not meet the minimum 8-contact model for antenatal care as recommended by WHO with only 31.2%-41.9% of them meeting the recommendation. To the best of our knowledge, no study in Ghana has examined women’s noncompliance with the WHO’s recommended 8-contact model for antenatal care using geospatial analysis, as this study sets out to do.

We sourced data from the recent version of the Ghana Maternal Health Survey which was executed in 2017. A sample of 10,077 women with complete data participated in this study. The link between the explanatory variables and the outcome variable was investigated using binary and multivariate logistic regression models and Spatial analyses such as spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I), hotspot, cluster and outlier analysis, and geographically weighted regression were conducted using ArcMap version 10.7.

Districts found in the north-eastern and south-western parts of the country were more likely to experience noncompliance with ANC. Women staying within the middle belt without health insurance were more likely (17–29%) to be noncompliant with ANC. Women with low community socioeconomic status were found to be more likely (17–34%) to be noncompliant with ANC in the eastern parts of Ghana.

The study has shown that in order to achieve targets one and three of Sustainable Development Goal 3, the government of Ghana, the Ministry of Health, together with the Ghana Health Service may have to intensify health education in the identified areas to highlight the importance of adherence to the WHO recommendations on ANC 8-contact model.
Original languageEnglish
Article number192
Number of pages1
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Issue number1
Early online date18 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 18 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

We acknowledge Measure DHS for providing us with the data.

© 2023. The Author(s).


  • Antenatal care
  • Reproductive health
  • Women
  • Geospatial analysis
  • Ghana
  • Social demography


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