Psychological capital among university students : relationships with study engagement and intrinsic motivation

Oi Ling SIU, Arnold B. BAKKER, Xinhui JIANG

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

53 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports two studies: Study 1 aimed to evaluate respective modified versions of existing scales of psychological capital (PsyCap) and study engagement (SE), and to test the reciprocal relationship between PsyCap and SE; Study 2 aimed to test intrinsic motivation as a mediator between PsyCap and SE. A two-wave cross-lagged design was adopted in Study 1 with a matched sample of 103 students, with 4 months apart. With confirmatory factor analyses, the results supported the construct validity of a higher-order model of PsyCap (PsyCap overall) and of study engagement comprising dedication, absorption and vigor. Further, the reciprocal relationship between PsyCap and SE was demonstrated. Results of Study 2 among 100 university students showed that intrinsic motivation measured at time 2 was a significant mediator between time 1 PsyCap and time 2 SE.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)979-994
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Happiness Studies
Issue number4
Early online date10 Aug 2013
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014



  • Cross-lagged analysis
  • Psychological capital
  • Study engagement
  • Intrinsic motivation

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