The present study was carried out to explore whether English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' background, motivational, instructional, and information and communication technologies (ICT)-related characteristics predicted differences in writing performance across 13 educational systems. The multilevel analyses indicated that female, younger learners, and learners with higher socioeconomic status (SES) had better writing performance. School-level SES was a stronger predictor of variability in writing performance than student-level SES. EFL learners who perceived English learning to be less difficult and of more positive value tended to perform better in writing. The relationship between learners' perceptions of teachers' emphasis on cross-linguistic similarities between languages and writing performance was negative. The results also provided evidence on the negative effects of ICT-related characteristics (i.e., ICT use for English learning and ICT-facilities at home) on EFL learners' writing performance.
|Number of pages||20|
|Journal||Psychology in the Schools|
|Early online date||1 Dec 2021|
|Publication status||Published - Mar 2022|
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- ICT-related characteristics
- writing instruction
- writing motivation
- writing performance