Lithium iron phosphate battery packs are widely employed for energy storage in electrified vehicles and power grids. However, their flat voltage curves rendering the weakly observable state of charge are a critical stumbling block for charge equalization management. This paper focuses on the real-time active balancing of series-connected lithium iron phosphate batteries. In the absence of accurate in situ state information in the voltage plateau, a balancing current ratio (BCR) based algorithm is proposed for battery balancing. Then, BCR-based and voltage-based algorithms are fused, responsible for the balancing task within and beyond the voltage plateau, respectively. The balancing process is formulated as a batch-based run-to-run control problem, as the first time in the research area of battery management. The control algorithm acts in two timescales, including timewise control within each batch run and batchwise control at the end of each batch. Hardware-in-the-loop experiments demonstrate that the proposed balancing algorithm is able to release 97.1% of the theoretical capacity and can improve the capacity utilization by 5.7% from its benchmarking algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can be coded in C language with the binary code in 118 328 bytes only and, thus, is readily implementable in real time.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61433005, in part by the Hong Kong Research Council under Grant 16207717, in part by the Guangdong Scientific and Technological Project under Grant 2017B010120002, and in part by the Swedish Energy Agency under Grant 42787-1.
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- Active battery balancing
- battery management system
- lithium-ion battery
- run-to-run control