Field and experimental studies reaffirm the importance of social face in conflict in Asia. Affronts to social face were found to induce competition and closed-mindedness and result in disrupted relationships. However, social face concerns, when they were confirmed and participants felt respected, were found to contribute to cooperative goals, open-mindedness, learning, and integration of people and positions. Harmony in Asia may not simply be conflict avoidance, but implicitly include confirmation of face and a commitment to cooperative goals and mutually beneficial relationships. Then Asian managers and employees are able to use conflict to explore issues, create solutions, and strengthen collaboration.
TJOSVOLD, D. W., HUI, C., & SUN, H. (2000). Social Face and Open-Mindedness : Constructive Conflict in Asia. In Asian management matters : regional relevance and global impact (pp. 3-16). Imperial College Press. https://doi.org/10.1142/9781848160149_0001