移民的空间聚集与群体社会距离 : 来自上海的证据

Translated title of the contribution: Spatial Concentration and Social Distance of Migrants: Evidences from Shanghai

曾东林 , 吴晓刚, 陈伟

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

Abstract

本文以上海为例,研究社区外来人口聚居对群体社会距离的影响。 基于 2016 年上海市实有人口数据,我们运用空间统计的方法区分了不同来源省份的外来人口在各个社区的聚居状况,再结合 2017 年完成的“上海都市社区调查”(SUNS)个体数据,对移民群体同乡的居住聚集和他们所感知的与本地居民社会距离之间的关系进行分析。研究发现,相对于居住在非聚集社区的移民,居住在同乡聚集社区的移民与本地居民有更大的社会距离,即与本地居民进行交往的意愿更低。进一步的分析发现,居住在非隔离的同乡聚集社区的移民并没有表现出更大的社会距离, 而居住在非隔离社区的移民则表现出更大的社会距离。而这些发现也仅仅存在于城市社区。我们认为同乡的居住聚集强化了本外地群体之间的边界,不利于他们融入当地城市社会。

This paper examines whether the spatial concentration of migrants from the same province of origin is associated with a larger social distance toward the native residents in Shanghai. We develop theoretical hypotheses that the spatial concentration of in-group members, measured as migrants with the same province of origin, reinforces their group identity and enlarges their perceived social distance toward natives. Applying spatial clustering analysis to government register-based data, we first define spatial concentration as a high representation of in-group members in a series of adjacent neighborhoods. Specifically, we adopt the Hot Spot Analysis tool to calculate the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics for the distribution of each migrant group across residential neighborhoods and identify statistically significant spatial clusters of high values (hotspots) and low values (cold spots). We then link respondents with government register-based data by information on the geographic location of each respondent in the SUNS and distinguish migrants living in spatially clustered neighborhoods from their counterparts living elsewhere.

This study has two main findings. First, the spatial concentration of in-group members reinforces group identity. Migrants living in spatially clustered neighborhoods tend to demonstrate a higher level of group identity than their counterparts living elsewhere. Second, group boundaries highlighted by the spatial concentration of in-group members enlarge the social distance between migrants and native residents. That is, migrants living in spatially clustered neighborhoods tend to have a larger social distance toward natives. We argue that the increased social distance can be explained by the residential segregation created by the spatial concentration of in-group members.
We further classify spatially clustered neighborhoods into segregated and non-segregated neighborhoods. Compared with migrants living in non-clustered neighborhoods, only those living in segregated neighborhoods have a larger social distance toward native residents. We suspect that the social norms and culture of migrants are maintained by the spatial concentration of in-group members in local neighborhoods. The group solidarity created by residential segregation may reduce social contact between in-group members and outsiders. This study makes several
contributions. First, we contribute to the literature on the social consequences of the residential concentration of migrants. Second, we extend the research on the association between residential segregation and social assimilation by examining how social distance is associated with the spatial concentration of in-group members in the context of internal migration. Third, we adopt an innovative measure of residential segregation. Therefore, our study contributes to understanding the social adaptation of migrants in cities from a perspective of spatial concentration.
Translated title of the contributionSpatial Concentration and Social Distance of Migrants: Evidences from Shanghai
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)56-79
Journal社会
Volume2021
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • 移民
  • 社区
  • 空间聚集
  • 社会距离
  • 社会融合
  • migrants
  • residential neighborhood
  • spatial concentration
  • social distance
  • social integration

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