This study presents a 12-year (1989-2001) longitudinal comparison of managerial values systems in China, Hong Kong, and the U.S. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we test the validity of the three competing perspectives--convergence, divergence, and crossvergence--on values system evolution in these three societies. We use the sociocultural influence and business ideology influence typology as the foundation for developing our hypotheses. Additionally, we assess the contribution of the specific values within the values system to the overall system values findings. Our data most strongly support the multicultural crossvergence perspective. During a time period of stability in the U.S. and substantial change in both Hong Kong and China, the values of Hong Kong and China became more similar, while the values of these two Greater China societies became more different from those of the U.S.
RALSTON, D. A., POUNDER, J. S., LO, W. H. C., WONG, Y. Y., EGRI, C. P., & STAUFFER, J. (2006). Stability and change in managerial work values : a longitudinal study of China, Hong Kong, and the U.S. Management and Organization Review, 2(1), 67-94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2006.00031.x