Stability and change in managerial work values : a longitudinal study of China, Hong Kong, and the U.S

David A. RALSTON, James Stuart POUNDER, Wing Hung, Carlos LO, Yim Yu WONG, Carolyn P. EGRI, Joseph STAUFFER

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

96 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents a 12-year (1989-2001) longitudinal comparison of managerial values systems in China, Hong Kong, and the U.S. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we test the validity of the three competing perspectives--convergence, divergence, and crossvergence--on values system evolution in these three societies. We use the sociocultural influence and business ideology influence typology as the foundation for developing our hypotheses. Additionally, we assess the contribution of the specific values within the values system to the overall system values findings. Our data most strongly support the multicultural crossvergence perspective. During a time period of stability in the U.S. and substantial change in both Hong Kong and China, the values of Hong Kong and China became more similar, while the values of these two Greater China societies became more different from those of the U.S.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-94
Number of pages28
JournalManagement and Organization Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2006


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