Stakeholders’ perceptions of the trends in contraceptive prevalence rate and total fertility rate in Ghana

Fred Yao GBAGBO*, Edward Kwabena AMEYAW

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Studies in Ghana have reported discrepancies between trends in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR). Yet, there is limited empirical literature on stakeholders’ perceptions on the trends in CPR and TFR in Ghana. We, therefore, examined the perceptions of key stakeholders about the documented trends in CPR and TFR in Ghana.

We adopted an exploratory (qualitative) research design with a qualitative approach of data collection from stakeholders in Ghana, focusing on the trends of the TFR and CPR. The Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies (COREQ) checklist provided additional guidance for reporting the study results. We employed the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework/construct to explain and predict individual changes in health behaviors resulting in trends in CPR and TFR from stakeholders’ perspectives and analyzed the data using framework analysis approach.

Two main themes emerged from the data: contraceptive prevalence and total fertility ratio, with five sub-themes identified: barriers to contraception, motivations for contraception uptake, unmet need for family planning, induced abortion, and effectiveness of planning programs. Specifically, participants indicated that there is a discrepancy between the trends of CPR and TFR based on the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, conducted between 1988 and 2014. The high unmet needs for contraceptives were attributed to CRP trends, whilst abstinence, infertility, and high demands for induced abortions were identified to impact the TFR trends significantly.

The findings show that an extensive quantitative enquiry into the exact relationships between Ghana’s CPR and TFR as well as the contributions of abstinence, infertility, and induced abortion are worth considering.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0288924
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number7
Early online date24 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright: © 2023 Gbagbo, Ameyaw. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


  • Birth Rate
  • Contraception
  • Contraception Behavior
  • Contraceptive Agents
  • Family Planning Services
  • Female
  • Fertility
  • Ghana/epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Infertility
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence


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