Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Lactifluus (Russulales, Basidiomycota) of South Korea

Hyun LEE, Komsit WISSITRASSAMEEWONG, Myung Soo PARK, Jonathan J. FONG, Annemieke VERBEKEN, Changmu KIM, Young Woon LIM

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Lactifluus (Pers.) Roussel is an ectomycorrhizal genus that was recently recognized to be distinct from the genus Lactarius. To date, 226 Lactifluus species have been reported worldwide. Misidentification of Lactifluus species is common because of intraspecific morphological variation, cryptic diversity, and the limited number of taxonomic keys available. Molecular data are indispensable for species delimitation; a multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that most Asian Lactifluus species are not conspecific with morphologically similar species present on other continents. In particular, Korea has misused European and North American Lactifluus names. In this study, we evaluated the taxonomy of Lactifluus in Korea using both morphological and multilocus molecular (ITS, nrLSU, rpb1, and rpb2) data. We examined 199 Lactifluus specimens collected between 1980 and 2016, and a total of 24 species across the four Lactifluus subgenera were identified. All Korean species are distinct and clearly separated from European and North American species. Five taxa corresponded to previously described species from Asia and the remaining 19 taxa are confirmed as new species. Herein, we provide keys to the Korean Lactifluus species within their subgenera, molecular phylogenies, a summary of diversity, and detailed description of the new species.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)308-345
Number of pages38
Issue number4
Early online date7 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Institute of Biological Resources [NIBR201801105, NIBR201902113 & NIBR202102107] and the Korea National Arboretum [KNA 1-3-2, 19-5]. The authors thank Dr. Soon Ja Seok, Prof. Jong Kyu Lee, and Dr. Sang Kuk Han for providing specimens. We also greatly appreciate Dr. Xiang-Hua Wang to improve our manuscript through detailed comments.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Korean Society of Mycology.


  • Milkcap
  • diversity
  • multilocus phylogeny
  • species delimitation


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