Scholars have long emphasized the key role played by foreign translations and transnational circulations of knowledge in the seismic evolutions of the late Qing and Republican eras. From the establishment of the Tongwenguan (同文館) in 1862 and the first overseas educational missions of the 1870s to missionary schools and the translations of Yan Fu (嚴復), these new circuits of knowledge production accelerated both social and political change, from the Qing state’s modernization efforts to everyday urban life.1 In turn, scholars have long emphasized the abolition of the civil service examinations in 1905 as a turning-point in both educational reform and the political foment that would culminate in the 1911 Revolution.
|Title of host publication||Knowledge, Power, and Networks : Elites in Transition in Modern China|
|Editors||Cécile ARMAND, Christian HENRIOT, Huei-min SUN|
|Number of pages||31|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2022|
|Name||Studies on Modern East Asian History|
Portions of this chapter appeared in the author's book Made in Hong Kong: Transpacific Networks and a New History of Globalization (Columbia University Press, Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, 2021).