The biomechanical difference between running with traditional and 3D printed orthoses

Shiwei MO, Sam H.S. LEUNG, Zoe Y.S. CHAN, Louis K.Y. SZE, Kam Ming MOK, Patrick S.H. YUNG, Reed FERBER, Roy T.H. CHEUNG

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Running-related injuries have been associated with excessive foot pronation and high vertical loading rates. Traditional plaster-molded (TPM) foot orthoses are commonly prescribed to minimize these atypical biomechanical patterns. Recently, 3D printed (3DP) orthoses have become popular, yet the functional difference between these two types of orthoses remains unknown. Therefore, this study compared running biomechanics and perceived comfort during treadmill running in three orthotic conditions: 3DP orthoses, TPM orthoses, and a no-orthoses control condition (CON). Thirteen female asymptomatic runners with excessive foot pronation were recruited. Rearfoot eversion angle and velocity (at initial contact and peak) during stance, vertical loading rates, and perceived comfort were compared. Results showed lower peak rearfoot eversion angles during running with TPM (p=0.001, d=0.38) or 3DP orthoses (p=0.002, d=0.24) than CON. No differences were observed in other biomechanical parameters among the three conditions (p>0.05). Running with TPM (p≤0.001, d=1.74–1.82) and 3DP orthoses (p
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2191-2197
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Kinematics
  • Kinetics
  • Orthotics
  • Perceived comfort
  • foot pronation


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