The Development of a Service-Learning Outcomes Measurement Scale (S-LOMS)

Robin Stanley SNELL, Ka Hing Calvin LAU

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

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Service-learning as a transformative pedagogy has been adopted within Hong Kong’s tertiary education sector for over a decade, however the lack of a standardized and validated measurement instrument to assess its student learning outcomes has been an obstacle to its further development. The current research study (collaboratively conducted by Lingnan University, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Baptist University, and The Education University of Hong Kong) therefore aims to develop such a measurement instrument named the “Service-Learning Outcomes Measurement Scale (S-LOMS)”, taking consideration of the unique features of service-learning in Hong Kong. The scale development and validation work, with exploratory factor analysis and reliability test, has thus far demonstrated that the student-perceived learning outcomes after service-learning can be measured and assessed through 56 items. These items cover 11 domains under four major categories, namely: a) knowledge application; b) personal and professional skills (including relationship and team skills, creative problem solving skills, self-reflection skills, and critical thinking skills), c) civic orientation and engagement (including sense of social responsibility, community commitment and understanding, and caring and respect), and d) self-awareness (including self-efficacy, self-understanding, and commitment to self-improvement). Several additional insights arising from the validation results are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-77
Number of pages33
JournalMetropolitan Universities
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

This paper results from a cross-institutional project named “Cross-institutional Capacity Building for Service-Learning in Hong Kong Higher Education Institutions”, aiming at enhancing and supporting the development of service-learning as an effective pedagogical strategy under the collaboration of Lingnan University, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Baptist University, and The Education University of Hong Kong. The project was launched in 2017, and has been funded by the University Grants Committee (UGC) of the HKSAR government. The authors wish to thank the UGC for funding the project, and the above institutions for their participation in the process of scale development and validation. We are particularly grateful to Prof. James Yue On KO of The Education University of Hong Kong and Dr. Kam Por KWAN of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University for their advice on statistical analysis.


  • Hong Kong
  • Validation
  • scale development
  • exploratory factor analysis


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