在台灣原住民族文學作品中，「禮物」多半是由獵人贈與，而大部分的獵人也是贈禮者，筆者把這文學獵人之禮詮釋為個人、群體和生態的認同象徵。這樣的詮釋以人類學禮物理論為基礎。人類學家認為獵人的禮物是其自尊與部落地位的基礎，進而區分禮物與商品，前者建立人際關係以及人群與大自然的關係，也就是「生態」關係，而後者建立「物際」關係，即商品與商品之間的價值關係。以禮物為主的社會因此有群體化的趨勢；以商品交易為主的群體會分裂，變得個人化。本文將這個詮釋架構應用在當代台灣原住民族文學研究上。文學中的禮物是虛構的，當然不能視為簡單的社會鏡像；本文把虛構禮物視為作家用來探討當代原住民族認同的象徵，而為了要質疑獨立個體的概念，筆者把認同分為個人、群體和生態認同三個面相。討論的作品是霍斯陸曼‧伐伐的〈獵人〉、奧維尼‧卡露斯的〈永恆的歸宿〉、巴代的〈薑路〉及田雅各的〈最後的獵人〉；從〈獵人〉到〈最後的獵人〉，原住民部落被納入現代國際經濟體系，因而變得個人化，原住民作家面對這樣的情況自然會思考、建構或重構變化中的原住民認同。最後，筆者會做出方法論的自我批判，以利日後更進一步的跨界文化研究。 In Taiwanese aboriginal literature, most gifts are given by hunters and most hunters are gift givers. I see these fictional gifts as symbols of personal, tribal and ecological identity. I advance this interpretation based on my reading of anthropological gift theory. Anthropologists have described hunter’s gifts as the foundation of social standing, and have gone on to discriminate between gifts and commodities; the former conducive to the formation of interpersonal and ecological relations—relations between people and nature—and the latter conducive to the formation of relations of value between commodities. Societies in which gift giving is the main form of exchange will tend to be communal, while those in which commodity exchange predominate will splinter. This article applies this interpretive framework to the study of contemporary Taiwanese indigenous literature. The gifts I discuss are literary, so we cannot see them as simple reflections of social practice. Rather, I would view them as symbols contemporary aboriginal writers use to contemplate identity. In order to question the notion of the independent individual, I divide identity into three aspects, personal, social and ecological. I discuss Husluma Vava’s “The Hunter,” Auvini Kadresengan’s “Home to Return To,” Ba Dai’s “Ginger Road,” and Topas Tamapima’s “The Last Hunter.” From “The Hunter” to “The Last Hunter,” aboriginal villages have been drawn into the international economic order, fragmenting in this process. Facing fragmentation, aboriginal writers not only contemplate but also try to construct or reconstruct indigenous identity. I end with a methodological self-critique, as an aid to further comparative research.
|Original language||Chinese (Traditional)|
|Number of pages||26|
|Journal||文化越界 = Cross-cultural Studies|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Mar 2012|
- Taiwan indigenous literature
- gift theory