领字与慢词节奏、句法、结构的创新

Translated title of the contribution: The Lead Words and the Prosodic, Syntactic, and Structural Innovations in Manci-Poems

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

Abstract

领字历来被视为探究词艺术特点的极佳切入点。领字的使用给慢词带来了节奏丶句法丶结构的重大创新。领字主要有一丶二丶三丶四字四种,而一字领和三字领使用尤为频繁。在演唱吟诵的过程中,这两种领字分别与不同数量的双音丶三音词结合,并采用固定的顿歇和密集用韵,从而人为地将1+4丶3+3丶3+4三种散文节奏改造为词中特有的诗歌节奏。在句法方面,慢词中一丶三字领普遍引领多句,从而催生了具有头小尾大特征的主谓句群和题评节段。在领字所催生的各种创新之中,意义最为深远是慢词结构之质变。严格地说,小令始终未能冲破诗体结构的桎梏,词是到了慢词才发展出自己独一无二的结构。在以柳永所代表的早期慢词之中,领字的作用从句法层次扩展到结构层次,每个领字和所领部分横向地构成一个主谓句群或题评节段,而所有领字又纵向地紧紧连成一串,一种立体的连环式迭加结构便应运而生。这种结构前所未有丶后无来者,堪称中国诗歌史上的一朵奇葩。在柳永之后,随着领字的蜕变和消失,在诗体结构影响回流的情况下,柳氏连环式迭加结构又衍出二元体迭加丶序列迭加结构。柳永等人创立慢词,深入挖掘领字的特殊功能,引入所有这些新颖的节奏丶句法丶结构,从而创造出比诗体和小令"文更繁而意更深广"的词境。

The use of lead words ( 领 字) which were usually exclamatory oral phrases,brought about important innovations in the prosody, syntax, and structure of Manci-poems ( 慢词) . On the prosodic level, lead words merged with a variable number of bisyllabic or trisyllabic content words and, aided with dense rhymes, formed three new poetic prosodic patterns: 1 + 4, 3 + 3, and 3 + 4. On the syntactic level, the use of lead words gave rise to distinct bottom-heavy sentence clusters: subject + predicate sentence clusters, and topic + comment sentence clusters. Of all the innovations that were brought about for the use of lead words, none was more important and profound than the birth of the three poetic structures that were unique to the Manci genre: an interlocking aggregate structure exemplified by Liu Yong’s ( 柳永) Manci works, a binary aggregate structure, and a sequential aggregate structure. Thanks to these prosodic, syntactic, and structural innovations, Manci-poems became capable of evoking a kind of poetic vision that was of much greater scope and depth than what had been seen in earlier poetic genres.
Translated title of the contributionThe Lead Words and the Prosodic, Syntactic, and Structural Innovations in Manci-Poems
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)77-90
Number of pages14
Journal北京大学学报(哲学社会科学版)
Volume54
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2017

Bibliographical note

香港研究资助局优配研究金的资助 (项目编号LU13400014)

Keywords

  • 领字与慢词艺术特征
  • 慢词节奏
  • 慢词句法
  • 慢词结构
  • 慢词词境
  • artistic features of lead words
  • Manci-poem
  • prosody of Manci-poem
  • syntax of Manci-poem
  • structure of Manci-poem
  • poetic vision of Manci-poem

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