The limits of massification in the Asia-Pacific region : Six conflicting hypotheses

John N. HAWKINS*, Deane E. NEUBAUER, Alfred M. WU, Ka Ho Joshua MOK

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Book Chapters | Papers in Conference ProceedingsBook ChapterResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This chapter provides a framework for the initial exploration of the dilemmas of massification in the Asia Pacific region. In 1973 when Martin Trow introduced his three stages of university massification (1. Elite, 2. Mass, 3. Universal), reactions ranged from outrage to joy. There were those who strongly felt that HE was higher by definition because it was elite, and there were those who celebrated the vision of societies with open access to HE regardless of social economic status, privilege or exclusionary benefits. As the authors develop various views of massification and its dilemmas while simultaneously seeking to adduce for them data relevant to the overall discussion of the differences that exist throughout the region in the overall progress of HE massification, the issue of sustainability emerges in a wide variety of forms – as do alternative frames of reference.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Sustainability of Higher Education in an Era of Post-Massification
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9781315186122
ISBN (Print)9781138736047
Publication statusPublished - 22 Nov 2017


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