"南宋画院"之省舍职制与后世想像

Translated title of the contribution: The organisations of the so-called "Southern Sung Painting Academy" and its imaginations after 1279

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

Abstract

北宋翰林图画院系一省舍独立、职制完整之机构实体,这是作为"机构"的画院。翰林四艺局入南宋后,"御书院"天文局医官局"三艺局均载录详备,唯独对"画院"只字不提,没有任何蛛丝马迹。南宋官制体系中"'画院"究竟编制于何处,古临安地图亦未见踪影。万历、清代至晚近画史生成的"中瓦子"、"武林园前"、"万松岭"三种所谓"画院院址"均非画院院址,所谓"复置时间"亦非复置时间。当所有南宋画史、史籍文献缴回的均是一张"无画院院址(地点)"、"无复置记录(时间)"、"无编制层级(机构)"、"无科层结构(官衔)"的空白履历 ; 当北宋画院承担之五项职事(绘画、装画、制造神御、合香、捏塑)南渡后各自变换跑道,"画院"解体为"画家十三科",所有证据率均指涉唯一的解答 : 南渡后没有实体省舍。任职三省百司之"非御前画师"由隶属机构登记在案 : "御前画师"直隶帝王但居无定所,没有专属的署廨院址。无论"卸前"或"非御前",其制度规模之分散程度无法匹配其余翰林三艺局,散状隶籍的供职网络没有稳定的职制等级,因而南宋人不称"画院"。在1146、1186年朝廷诏令、1169、1274年临安方志、1236年《朝野类要》、1275年《梦梁录》等南宋史籍公私文献所列翰林诸艺局中,无法将画院等量并列。如果再回视南宋人编纂之南宋画史,辄更能理解1167年《画继》一书为什么称北宋画师任职"画院",而不提南宋画师供职画院。《画继》之所以始终不提"南宋画院"是因为南宋宫廷无实体画院。精确地说,南宋并不存在任何一处静止不变、独立运作、自给自足并堪称"画院"的机构。因此南宋人无从提起,致使后世的画史书写者捕风捉影,在元、明、清三朝数百年的画史长河里一步步地雕筑"南宋画院"的虚拟想象。

The general view held by most Chinese art critics think the "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was a replica of the Northern Sung Hsuarvho Painting Academy. This essay proposes to research the organizations on the so-called "Southern Sung Painting Academy" and try to point out how the Yuan, Ming and Ch'ing art critics imagined it after the Southern Sung Dynasty was collapsed in 1279.The Northern Sung Painting Academy was one of the four bureaus of the Han-lin Academy under the supervision of the Palace Domestic Service (Nei-ssu Sheng), together with the bureaus of Calligraphy, Astronomy, and Medicine in the Han-Sin Academy. However, while Southern Sung Dynasty renaissance in Hang-chou, the three other bureaus were reconstructed in the Han-lin Academy, only Painting Academy was eliminated and disappeared. No evidence could be proved the existence of Painting Academy in this Dynasty, When did it establish was not founded. Where its geographic location was not recorded in early historical documents. The three kinds of so-called ''address" were not exactly academic vestige. Moreover, we can't figure out what’s the upper institution that dominated and managed this "Painting Academy". In Northern Sung Dynasty, the Han-lin Painting Academic was supervised by two palace eunuchs (kou-tang 勾 当). Under two kou-tangs were classified by four ranking titles: Tai-chao, l-hsueh, Chih-hou, Hsueh-sheng and other carpenters. But in Southern Sung, it seems that no legitimate entrance examination and recruiting agency. The staff just only conferred Tai-chao and Chih-hou, both of which are not formal official title. All evidences mentioned above indicate that the so-called "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was not an actually entity institution. It’s a virtual imagination. Since the "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was a fiction, the advanced question is, if the academy palace never existence, how the painters served in imperial court? Analyzed the memberships of court painters, we testified that painters and artisans were subdivided into two categories: The excellent proficiency such as Hsiao chao, Ma Yuan and Ma Lin were maneuverable and mobile, labeled as "Yu-ch’ien hua-shih" (御前画师) )and favored by the emperor. Nevertheless, they live outside the court since there's no vacancy can be resided and registered. Besides, another parts were diffused attach to some manufacturing government, craftsmen were widely distributed into Yu-ch'ien Chia-k’u (御前甲库), Hsiu-nei Ssu (修内司), Wen-ssu Yuan (文思院) )or other Crafts Institutions in charge of decorated paintings. In sum, the fictional "Southern Sung Painting Academy" couldn't fulfill any requirement in Northern Sung Han-lin Painting Academy, nor could it compare with the bureaus of Southern Sung Calligraphy, Astronomy, and Medicine. Thus the Southern Sung contemporary catalogues or historical documents were not evaluated it as "Painting Academy" until 1279.
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)62-86
Number of pages25
Journal故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies
Volume2
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dynasty
Palace
Calligraphy
Art Critic
Fiction
Sheng
Painters
Astronomy
Medicine
Historical Documents
Supervision
Craftsmen
Domestic Service
Court Painter
Ming
Entrance Examination
Manufacturing
Government
Entity
Academic Painting

Keywords

  • 南宋画院
  • 御前画院
  • 御前画师
  • 画家十三科
  • 画史想象
  • Southern Song Painting Academy
  • Royal Painting Academy
  • painter by imperial appointment
  • thirteen schools of painters from the Painting Academy
  • imaginary art history

Cite this

@article{54060fb261134fceb9c38600aa680e3e,
title = "{"}南宋画院{"}之省舍职制与后世想像",
abstract = "北宋翰林图画院系一省舍独立、职制完整之机构实体,这是作为{"}机构{"}的画院。翰林四艺局入南宋后,{"}御书院{"}天文局医官局{"}三艺局均载录详备,唯独对{"}画院{"}只字不提,没有任何蛛丝马迹。南宋官制体系中{"}'画院{"}究竟编制于何处,古临安地图亦未见踪影。万历、清代至晚近画史生成的{"}中瓦子{"}、{"}武林园前{"}、{"}万松岭{"}三种所谓{"}画院院址{"}均非画院院址,所谓{"}复置时间{"}亦非复置时间。当所有南宋画史、史籍文献缴回的均是一张{"}无画院院址(地点){"}、{"}无复置记录(时间){"}、{"}无编制层级(机构){"}、{"}无科层结构(官衔){"}的空白履历 ; 当北宋画院承担之五项职事(绘画、装画、制造神御、合香、捏塑)南渡后各自变换跑道,{"}画院{"}解体为{"}画家十三科{"},所有证据率均指涉唯一的解答 : 南渡后没有实体省舍。任职三省百司之{"}非御前画师{"}由隶属机构登记在案 : {"}御前画师{"}直隶帝王但居无定所,没有专属的署廨院址。无论{"}卸前{"}或{"}非御前{"},其制度规模之分散程度无法匹配其余翰林三艺局,散状隶籍的供职网络没有稳定的职制等级,因而南宋人不称{"}画院{"}。在1146、1186年朝廷诏令、1169、1274年临安方志、1236年《朝野类要》、1275年《梦梁录》等南宋史籍公私文献所列翰林诸艺局中,无法将画院等量并列。如果再回视南宋人编纂之南宋画史,辄更能理解1167年《画继》一书为什么称北宋画师任职{"}画院{"},而不提南宋画师供职画院。《画继》之所以始终不提{"}南宋画院{"}是因为南宋宫廷无实体画院。精确地说,南宋并不存在任何一处静止不变、独立运作、自给自足并堪称{"}画院{"}的机构。因此南宋人无从提起,致使后世的画史书写者捕风捉影,在元、明、清三朝数百年的画史长河里一步步地雕筑{"}南宋画院{"}的虚拟想象。The general view held by most Chinese art critics think the {"}Southern Sung Painting Academy{"} was a replica of the Northern Sung Hsuarvho Painting Academy. This essay proposes to research the organizations on the so-called {"}Southern Sung Painting Academy{"} and try to point out how the Yuan, Ming and Ch'ing art critics imagined it after the Southern Sung Dynasty was collapsed in 1279.The Northern Sung Painting Academy was one of the four bureaus of the Han-lin Academy under the supervision of the Palace Domestic Service (Nei-ssu Sheng), together with the bureaus of Calligraphy, Astronomy, and Medicine in the Han-Sin Academy. However, while Southern Sung Dynasty renaissance in Hang-chou, the three other bureaus were reconstructed in the Han-lin Academy, only Painting Academy was eliminated and disappeared. No evidence could be proved the existence of Painting Academy in this Dynasty, When did it establish was not founded. Where its geographic location was not recorded in early historical documents. The three kinds of so-called ''address{"} were not exactly academic vestige. Moreover, we can't figure out what’s the upper institution that dominated and managed this {"}Painting Academy{"}. In Northern Sung Dynasty, the Han-lin Painting Academic was supervised by two palace eunuchs (kou-tang 勾 当). Under two kou-tangs were classified by four ranking titles: Tai-chao, l-hsueh, Chih-hou, Hsueh-sheng and other carpenters. But in Southern Sung, it seems that no legitimate entrance examination and recruiting agency. The staff just only conferred Tai-chao and Chih-hou, both of which are not formal official title. All evidences mentioned above indicate that the so-called {"}Southern Sung Painting Academy{"} was not an actually entity institution. It’s a virtual imagination. Since the {"}Southern Sung Painting Academy{"} was a fiction, the advanced question is, if the academy palace never existence, how the painters served in imperial court? Analyzed the memberships of court painters, we testified that painters and artisans were subdivided into two categories: The excellent proficiency such as Hsiao chao, Ma Yuan and Ma Lin were maneuverable and mobile, labeled as {"}Yu-ch’ien hua-shih{"} (御前画师) )and favored by the emperor. Nevertheless, they live outside the court since there's no vacancy can be resided and registered. Besides, another parts were diffused attach to some manufacturing government, craftsmen were widely distributed into Yu-ch'ien Chia-k’u (御前甲库), Hsiu-nei Ssu (修内司), Wen-ssu Yuan (文思院) )or other Crafts Institutions in charge of decorated paintings. In sum, the fictional {"}Southern Sung Painting Academy{"} couldn't fulfill any requirement in Northern Sung Han-lin Painting Academy, nor could it compare with the bureaus of Southern Sung Calligraphy, Astronomy, and Medicine. Thus the Southern Sung contemporary catalogues or historical documents were not evaluated it as {"}Painting Academy{"} until 1279.",
keywords = "南宋画院, 御前画院, 御前画师, 画家十三科, 画史想象, Southern Song Painting Academy, Royal Painting Academy, painter by imperial appointment, thirteen schools of painters from the Painting Academy, imaginary art history",
author = "彭慧萍",
year = "2005",
month = "10",
language = "Chinese (Simplified)",
volume = "2",
pages = "62--86",
journal = "故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies",

}

"南宋画院"之省舍职制与后世想像. / 彭慧萍.

In: 故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies, Vol. 2, 10.2005, p. 62-86.

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

TY - JOUR

T1 - "南宋画院"之省舍职制与后世想像

AU - 彭慧萍, null

PY - 2005/10

Y1 - 2005/10

N2 - 北宋翰林图画院系一省舍独立、职制完整之机构实体,这是作为"机构"的画院。翰林四艺局入南宋后,"御书院"天文局医官局"三艺局均载录详备,唯独对"画院"只字不提,没有任何蛛丝马迹。南宋官制体系中"'画院"究竟编制于何处,古临安地图亦未见踪影。万历、清代至晚近画史生成的"中瓦子"、"武林园前"、"万松岭"三种所谓"画院院址"均非画院院址,所谓"复置时间"亦非复置时间。当所有南宋画史、史籍文献缴回的均是一张"无画院院址(地点)"、"无复置记录(时间)"、"无编制层级(机构)"、"无科层结构(官衔)"的空白履历 ; 当北宋画院承担之五项职事(绘画、装画、制造神御、合香、捏塑)南渡后各自变换跑道,"画院"解体为"画家十三科",所有证据率均指涉唯一的解答 : 南渡后没有实体省舍。任职三省百司之"非御前画师"由隶属机构登记在案 : "御前画师"直隶帝王但居无定所,没有专属的署廨院址。无论"卸前"或"非御前",其制度规模之分散程度无法匹配其余翰林三艺局,散状隶籍的供职网络没有稳定的职制等级,因而南宋人不称"画院"。在1146、1186年朝廷诏令、1169、1274年临安方志、1236年《朝野类要》、1275年《梦梁录》等南宋史籍公私文献所列翰林诸艺局中,无法将画院等量并列。如果再回视南宋人编纂之南宋画史,辄更能理解1167年《画继》一书为什么称北宋画师任职"画院",而不提南宋画师供职画院。《画继》之所以始终不提"南宋画院"是因为南宋宫廷无实体画院。精确地说,南宋并不存在任何一处静止不变、独立运作、自给自足并堪称"画院"的机构。因此南宋人无从提起,致使后世的画史书写者捕风捉影,在元、明、清三朝数百年的画史长河里一步步地雕筑"南宋画院"的虚拟想象。The general view held by most Chinese art critics think the "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was a replica of the Northern Sung Hsuarvho Painting Academy. This essay proposes to research the organizations on the so-called "Southern Sung Painting Academy" and try to point out how the Yuan, Ming and Ch'ing art critics imagined it after the Southern Sung Dynasty was collapsed in 1279.The Northern Sung Painting Academy was one of the four bureaus of the Han-lin Academy under the supervision of the Palace Domestic Service (Nei-ssu Sheng), together with the bureaus of Calligraphy, Astronomy, and Medicine in the Han-Sin Academy. However, while Southern Sung Dynasty renaissance in Hang-chou, the three other bureaus were reconstructed in the Han-lin Academy, only Painting Academy was eliminated and disappeared. No evidence could be proved the existence of Painting Academy in this Dynasty, When did it establish was not founded. Where its geographic location was not recorded in early historical documents. The three kinds of so-called ''address" were not exactly academic vestige. Moreover, we can't figure out what’s the upper institution that dominated and managed this "Painting Academy". In Northern Sung Dynasty, the Han-lin Painting Academic was supervised by two palace eunuchs (kou-tang 勾 当). Under two kou-tangs were classified by four ranking titles: Tai-chao, l-hsueh, Chih-hou, Hsueh-sheng and other carpenters. But in Southern Sung, it seems that no legitimate entrance examination and recruiting agency. The staff just only conferred Tai-chao and Chih-hou, both of which are not formal official title. All evidences mentioned above indicate that the so-called "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was not an actually entity institution. It’s a virtual imagination. Since the "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was a fiction, the advanced question is, if the academy palace never existence, how the painters served in imperial court? Analyzed the memberships of court painters, we testified that painters and artisans were subdivided into two categories: The excellent proficiency such as Hsiao chao, Ma Yuan and Ma Lin were maneuverable and mobile, labeled as "Yu-ch’ien hua-shih" (御前画师) )and favored by the emperor. Nevertheless, they live outside the court since there's no vacancy can be resided and registered. Besides, another parts were diffused attach to some manufacturing government, craftsmen were widely distributed into Yu-ch'ien Chia-k’u (御前甲库), Hsiu-nei Ssu (修内司), Wen-ssu Yuan (文思院) )or other Crafts Institutions in charge of decorated paintings. In sum, the fictional "Southern Sung Painting Academy" couldn't fulfill any requirement in Northern Sung Han-lin Painting Academy, nor could it compare with the bureaus of Southern Sung Calligraphy, Astronomy, and Medicine. Thus the Southern Sung contemporary catalogues or historical documents were not evaluated it as "Painting Academy" until 1279.

AB - 北宋翰林图画院系一省舍独立、职制完整之机构实体,这是作为"机构"的画院。翰林四艺局入南宋后,"御书院"天文局医官局"三艺局均载录详备,唯独对"画院"只字不提,没有任何蛛丝马迹。南宋官制体系中"'画院"究竟编制于何处,古临安地图亦未见踪影。万历、清代至晚近画史生成的"中瓦子"、"武林园前"、"万松岭"三种所谓"画院院址"均非画院院址,所谓"复置时间"亦非复置时间。当所有南宋画史、史籍文献缴回的均是一张"无画院院址(地点)"、"无复置记录(时间)"、"无编制层级(机构)"、"无科层结构(官衔)"的空白履历 ; 当北宋画院承担之五项职事(绘画、装画、制造神御、合香、捏塑)南渡后各自变换跑道,"画院"解体为"画家十三科",所有证据率均指涉唯一的解答 : 南渡后没有实体省舍。任职三省百司之"非御前画师"由隶属机构登记在案 : "御前画师"直隶帝王但居无定所,没有专属的署廨院址。无论"卸前"或"非御前",其制度规模之分散程度无法匹配其余翰林三艺局,散状隶籍的供职网络没有稳定的职制等级,因而南宋人不称"画院"。在1146、1186年朝廷诏令、1169、1274年临安方志、1236年《朝野类要》、1275年《梦梁录》等南宋史籍公私文献所列翰林诸艺局中,无法将画院等量并列。如果再回视南宋人编纂之南宋画史,辄更能理解1167年《画继》一书为什么称北宋画师任职"画院",而不提南宋画师供职画院。《画继》之所以始终不提"南宋画院"是因为南宋宫廷无实体画院。精确地说,南宋并不存在任何一处静止不变、独立运作、自给自足并堪称"画院"的机构。因此南宋人无从提起,致使后世的画史书写者捕风捉影,在元、明、清三朝数百年的画史长河里一步步地雕筑"南宋画院"的虚拟想象。The general view held by most Chinese art critics think the "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was a replica of the Northern Sung Hsuarvho Painting Academy. This essay proposes to research the organizations on the so-called "Southern Sung Painting Academy" and try to point out how the Yuan, Ming and Ch'ing art critics imagined it after the Southern Sung Dynasty was collapsed in 1279.The Northern Sung Painting Academy was one of the four bureaus of the Han-lin Academy under the supervision of the Palace Domestic Service (Nei-ssu Sheng), together with the bureaus of Calligraphy, Astronomy, and Medicine in the Han-Sin Academy. However, while Southern Sung Dynasty renaissance in Hang-chou, the three other bureaus were reconstructed in the Han-lin Academy, only Painting Academy was eliminated and disappeared. No evidence could be proved the existence of Painting Academy in this Dynasty, When did it establish was not founded. Where its geographic location was not recorded in early historical documents. The three kinds of so-called ''address" were not exactly academic vestige. Moreover, we can't figure out what’s the upper institution that dominated and managed this "Painting Academy". In Northern Sung Dynasty, the Han-lin Painting Academic was supervised by two palace eunuchs (kou-tang 勾 当). Under two kou-tangs were classified by four ranking titles: Tai-chao, l-hsueh, Chih-hou, Hsueh-sheng and other carpenters. But in Southern Sung, it seems that no legitimate entrance examination and recruiting agency. The staff just only conferred Tai-chao and Chih-hou, both of which are not formal official title. All evidences mentioned above indicate that the so-called "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was not an actually entity institution. It’s a virtual imagination. Since the "Southern Sung Painting Academy" was a fiction, the advanced question is, if the academy palace never existence, how the painters served in imperial court? Analyzed the memberships of court painters, we testified that painters and artisans were subdivided into two categories: The excellent proficiency such as Hsiao chao, Ma Yuan and Ma Lin were maneuverable and mobile, labeled as "Yu-ch’ien hua-shih" (御前画师) )and favored by the emperor. Nevertheless, they live outside the court since there's no vacancy can be resided and registered. Besides, another parts were diffused attach to some manufacturing government, craftsmen were widely distributed into Yu-ch'ien Chia-k’u (御前甲库), Hsiu-nei Ssu (修内司), Wen-ssu Yuan (文思院) )or other Crafts Institutions in charge of decorated paintings. In sum, the fictional "Southern Sung Painting Academy" couldn't fulfill any requirement in Northern Sung Han-lin Painting Academy, nor could it compare with the bureaus of Southern Sung Calligraphy, Astronomy, and Medicine. Thus the Southern Sung contemporary catalogues or historical documents were not evaluated it as "Painting Academy" until 1279.

KW - 南宋画院

KW - 御前画院

KW - 御前画师

KW - 画家十三科

KW - 画史想象

KW - Southern Song Painting Academy

KW - Royal Painting Academy

KW - painter by imperial appointment

KW - thirteen schools of painters from the Painting Academy

KW - imaginary art history

UR - https://www.academia.edu/7290624/_The_Organization_of_the_So-Called_Southern_Song_Painting_Academy_and_Its_Post-1279_Imaginary_Reconstruction_南宋畫院之省舍職制與後世想像_Journal_of_Gugong_Studies_2_2005_62-86

M3 - Journal Article (refereed)

VL - 2

SP - 62

EP - 86

JO - 故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies

JF - 故宫学刊 = Journal of Gugong Studies

ER -