This study examined (1) differences in background, integrative/instrumental motivation, learning approach, leaning strategy and proficiency in second language (L2) and (2) the determinants of learning outcomes between Hong Kong and Mainland (Chinese) students. To achieve this, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 773 s language learners across four universities in Hong Kong and Mainland China to students in Bachelor of Education (English Language) programmes. The results showed that L2 proficiency was the strongest predictor of learning outcomes for Hong Kong and Mainland students, while integrative motivation was also a significant predictor of learning outcomes in both sample groups. In addition, instrumental motivation, deep approaches, and learning strategies were found to be significant predictors of learning outcomes for Mainland students. Mainland students demonstrated lower levels of motivation, learning approaches, learning strategies, L2 proficiency, as well as learning outcomes relative to Hong Kong students. Implications for curriculum design, classroom teaching and assessment, and future research are discussed in the paper.
The author thanks Dr Anne Ma, Dr Zhang Yanhua, Ms Qin Xiaohui, Mr Li Chuangjin, Ms Jessica Lee, Ms Clarine Chan and Mr Frankie Leung in helping with the data collection. The author also thanks all the volunteer students for participating in this study.
This work was supported by the block research grant from the Education University of Hong Kong [Grant number RG69/12-13R].
- and university students
- L2 learning motivation
- L2 learning strategies
- L2 proficiency
- learning approach
- learning outcome