在操演與不操演之間:看被囚少年的影像實踐

Translated title of the contribution: To Perform or Not to Perform: Photographic Practices of Incarcerated Youths

游靜

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

Abstract

我在 2002 至 2005 年間先後在澳門 、日本北海道及香港的少年監獄 (或稱「感化院」、「教導所」、「男、女童院」等)舉行媒體工作坊,教導12至16歲的被囚少年攝影、錄音及拍 攝錄像的技巧。本文首先討論國家機器把犯罪少年同時進行身體與資訊上的隔離,製造出強化這些少年持續處於「偏差」狀態的效果,探討美國、日本及香港不少社會與心理學家、社工 對犯罪少年的研究與「青年論述」,如何加深了主流社會對「偏差少年」、「邊緣少年」的定見 ,加強警治 (policing) 的認受性。本文透過 就日本與香港同學的影像 作品作文本分析,從而瞥見論述與創作實踐之間互動的可能性,企圖藉此探索工作坊的介入(包括事前斟商的過程) 與同學的創作,如何對攝影這媒體長期被國家機器挪用來界定、製造及操控「偏差性」的歷史 功能作出回應,顛覆被客觀數據化的位置。我希望能借助本文,透過對影像的詮釋與論述策 略,為這些建立中的主體構成過程提供更多閱讀及被充權的可能性,重新肯定從青年主體出發 的重要性,尤其是被認為「犯罪」、「偏差」、「邊緣」、「問題製造者」。
最後,以性別研究學者巴特勒的性別操演概念及人類學家德格拉斯解讀的部落「除罪化」儀式,與被囚少年創作的影像互讀,提出審視切合在地脈絡的、「不操演」的正典效果的需要, 及操演雙重偏差性的表述可能,並挪用學者清水晶子對日本酷兒主體生存策略的另類詰問,重新思考把「偏差」欲望,以「不知廉恥的曖昧宣稱」形態操演出來的可能性與意義。

Combining strategies of art education, visual analysis and queer studies, this study maps a process of my conducting media-making workshops in a female juvenile correctional facility in Japan and in a male juvenile reform institute in Hong Kong during 2002-2005, as a means of intervention into the normative cultural imaginary of “deviant/ problem/ delinquent youths” and an attempt to subvert the historical appropriation of the photographic apparatus in producing and policing “criminals”. This study first discusses how the global construction of “deviance”/ juvenile delinquency has been shaped by sociological and psychological frameworks of the U.S., and how such frameworks might not be applicable to the socio-cultural-geopolitical contexts I work with.

I then highlight the need for youths’ self-representation in relation to the dominant discourses of youth in Japan and Hong Kong, and how these discourses have been directed in legitimizing more social control on young people. Then the article explores the multiple inter-textual possibilities offered through re- examining Judith Butler’s influential concept of “gender performativity”, Mary Douglas’ analysis of tribal rituals and taboos alongside the photographs taken by the jailed youths of themselves and of each other. Reading between the lines of discursive and media articulations, and between (cultural) theory and (media) practice, this juxtaposition illuminates the central normative position of “non- performativity” in the cultural contexts where these photos were produced.
Through these explorations, this article aims to re-assert the complex implications of discursive possibilities named by Akiko Shimizu as “scandalous equivocation” for marginalized subjects caught between the compulsions to perform and not perform simultaneously.
Translated title of the contributionTo Perform or Not to Perform: Photographic Practices of Incarcerated Youths
Original languageChinese (Hong Kong)
Pages (from-to)119-166
JournalRouter: Journal of Cultural Studies
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2007

Keywords

  • 偏差
  • (不)操演
  • 犯罪少年
  • 攝影
  • 主體
  • 醜聞式曖昧宣稱
  • deviance
  • (non-)performativity
  • juvenile delinquency
  • photography
  • subject
  • scandalous equivocation

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