This book explores the deep-rooted anxiety about foreign otherness manifest through translation in modern China in its endeavours to engage in cross-cultural exchanges. It offers to theorize and contextualize a related range of issues concerning translation practice in response to foreign otherness. The book also introduces new vistas to some of the under-explored aspects of translation practice concerning ideology and cultural politics from the late Qing dynasty to the present day. Largely as a result of translation, ethnocentric beliefs and feelings have given way to a more open and liberal way to approach and appropriate foreign otherness. However, the fear of Westernization, seen as a threat to Chinese cultural integrity and social stability, is still shown sporadically through the state’s ideological control over translation. The book interprets, questions and reformulates a number of the key theoretical issues in Translation Studies and also demonstrates their ramifications in a bid to shed light on Chinese translation practice.