Trump and the End of an Era? The Liberal International Order in Perspective

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The liberal international economic and political order which the United States created from the ashes of World War II and has since led is in trouble. To United States President Donald Trump, the order which provided the framework under which sovereign states agreed to follow a rules-based system of economic and political cooperation and shared multilateral governance, has not only allowed other nations (in particular, China) to take advantage of US ‘magnanimity’, but also weakened the United States economically, while asymmetric alliances compromised its military advantages. Given the sustained assault this cosmopolitan order is facing, many fear that it may not survive if Trump is re-elected in November 2020. Indeed, if the United States response to the COVID-19 pandemic is any guide, an ‘America First’ agenda, especially a hard-line approach to China, will shape US policy if Trump wins a second term.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-97
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Spectator
Issue number3
Early online date20 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020

Bibliographical note

The author thanks three anonymous referees for their insightful comments. Of course, none are responsible for the content presented here. An earlier version of this article was presented at the Academy of International Business, Southeast Asia Regional Conference, in Cebu, the Philippines, 5 December 2019.


  • Donald Trump
  • US foreign policy
  • liberal international order
  • China
  • WTO


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