Truthmaker Semantics for Epistemic Logic

Peter HAWKE*, Aybüke ÖZGÜN

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Book Chapters | Papers in Conference ProceedingsBook ChapterResearchpeer-review


We explore some possibilities for developing epistemic logic using truthmaker semantics. We identify three possible targets of analysis for the epistemic logician. We then list some candidate epistemic principles and review the arguments that render some controversial. We then present the classic Hintikkan approach to epistemic logic and note—as per the ‘problem of logical omniscience’—that it validates all of the aforementioned principles, controversial or otherwise. We then lay out a truthmaker framework in the style of Kit Fine and present six different ways of extending this semantics with a conditional knowledge operator, drawing on notions of implication and content that are prominent in Fine’s work. We demonstrate that different logics are thereby generated, bearing on the aforementioned epistemic principles. Finally, we offer preliminary observations about the prospects for each logic.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationKit Fine on Truthmakers, Relevance, and Non-classical Logic
EditorsFederico L. G. FAROLDI, Frederik VAN DE PUTTE
PublisherSpringer, Cham
ISBN (Electronic)9783031294150
ISBN (Print)9783031294143
Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2023

Publication series

NameOutstanding Contributions to Logic
ISSN (Print)2211-2758
ISSN (Electronic)2211-2766


  • truthmaker semantics
  • Epistemic logic
  • Epistemic paradox
  • Conditional knowledge


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