There is a well-established tendency for people to see themselves as better than average (self-enhancement), although the universality of this phenomenon is contested. Much less well-known is the tendency for people to see themselves as more human than average (self-humanizing). We examined these biases in six diverse nations: Australia, Germany, Israel, Japan, Singapore, and the USA. Both biases were found in all nations. The self-humanizing effect was obtained independent of self-enhancement, and was stronger than self-enhancement in two nations (Germany and Japan). Self-humanizing was not specific to Western or English-speaking cultures and its magnitude was less cross-culturally variable than self-enhancement. Implications of these findings for research on the self and its biases are discussed.
LOUGHNAN, S., LEIDNER, B., DORON, G., HASLAM, N., KASHIMA, Y., TONG, J., & YEUNG, W. L. V. (2010). Universal biases in self-perception : better and more human than average. British Journal of Social Psychology, 49(3), 627-636. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466610X487779