Validating the Auckland Individualism–Collectivism Scale (AICS): Testing Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance in Hong Kong and Ghanaian Samples

Emmanuel AFFUM-OSEI, Michael Osei ABOAGYE, Collins Opoku ANTWI, Eric Adom ASANTE

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)

1 Scopus Citations


This study explores the dimensionality of individualism and collectivism constructs and provides evidence of validity for the Auckland Individualism–Collectivism Scale (AICS) on two separate samples from Hong Kong and Ghana. This study verified the dimensional structures of the AICS and tested the measurement invariance across ages and genders of undergraduate students in Hong Kong (N = 210) and Ghana (N = 187). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three dimensions on the individualism construct (competition, uniqueness, and responsibilities) and the two dimensions on the collectivism construct (advice and harmony). The path analysis showed consistency with the original scale and verified the validity of the measurement scale to the Hong Kong and Ghanaian cultural contexts. The overall five-factor model and two high-order factors showed good fit in the two samples. The results of metric invariance and scalar invariance across ages and genders are also reported. The findings provide additional support to the construct validity of the AICS for further use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-199
Number of pages13
JournalPsychological Studies
Issue number2
Early online date19 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019



  • Collectivism
  • Culture
  • Ghana
  • Hong Kong
  • Individualism

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