Who should care? Exploring the views and experiences of individuals in negotiating solutions for health security

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The Indonesian healthcare system has been reformed in tune with economic and political changes. The reform was pursued by encouraging growing reliance on individual contributions. Consolidating citizens' support has become increasingly important for the long-term sustainability of the programme. This study explores individual views and experiences in negotiating solutions for health security under the situation where pre-industrial modes of informal network remain intact, while private healthcare continues to be in demand by population segments targeted by the system.

Individual attitudes toward the current healthcare system were explored using online interviews (N = 75) in the cities of Jakarta and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The qualitative exploratory approach resorted to personal views on the importance of the state, family and market in health risk management. Perceptions on who should be responsible for healthcare, and the political legitimacy of the welfare-state approach to healthcare were also observed. A thematic coding strategy was used for the data analysis.

Those interviewed value and support the formal system (either state and market), yet place reliance on informal support (family and relatives). Intertwining views of religious teaching, filial piety, moral obligation were the most common reasons for individuals to support such dual welfare systems. The findings reflect the common attitudes toward welfare in the context of changing realities of individualised society at the early stage.

This article represents a valuable contribution at the empirical level because it provides an assessment of individuals' attitudes toward Indonesia's recent health arrangements. Such individuals are those belonging to the targeted population of the contributory system. This study also offers an alternative framework for understanding the nature of the healthcare regime generated from the perspectives of individuals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1109-1128
JournalInternational Journal of Sociology and Social Policy
Issue number11/12
Early online date14 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 23 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author thanks the editors and anonymous referees for very useful comments and suggestions. Funding : The author received no financial support for the research, authorship and/or publication of this article. Conflict of interest : The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.


  • Family
  • Healthcare
  • Informal network
  • Market
  • Welfare attitude


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