WISE Management : Competencies of the Managers of Work Integration Social Enterprises in Hong Kong

Zeno C.S. LEUNG*, Amy P.Y. HO, Raymond K.Y. TAM, Shing Pui, Doris WONG

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal PublicationsJournal Article (refereed)peer-review


In Hong Kong, the development of social enterprises has been rapid and is becoming increasingly diversified. Among the various types of social enterprise that exist, a work integration social enterprise (WISE) helps relieve different kinds of social problems such as unemployment. The success of a WISE is reliant on sustainable operations and developments led by competent managers. In this study, managers of 19 selected WISEs were interviewed to determine the core management competencies required in WISE operations. Five domains, strategic, business, leadership, interpersonal, and intrapersonal competency, were delineated. These competencies were also interrelated and complementary. The findings provide a valuable reference for related training and further development of WISEs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-163
Number of pages19
JournalUrban Social Work
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to the Research Committee of Hong Kong Polytechnic University (under Project Code: G-YBLY), for their financial support in this research.

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2021 Springer Publishing Company, LLC.


  • competency
  • Hong Kong
  • human resource management
  • social enterprise management
  • work integration social enterprise


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